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About Diamonds

A diamond’s brilliant tale: The Four C’s
Purchasing a diamond from Eternal Carats is actually quite easy.  On the website we use the Four C’s guide to help you find your way in diamonds. This guide was developed by the diamond world as a handy tool for consumers.  This guide will help to determine a diamond’s objective quality and value.  We will gladly help you in your search for the right diamond. 

The Four C’s as an objective guide
The Four C’s are a set of parameters; Cut, Colour, Clarity and Carat. These parameters will together determine a diamond’s value. When you search for a diamond from Eternal Carats these 4C characteristics are specified in the description details. They can also be found on the diamond certificates, included when buying a diamond.

Cut
Cut refers to a diamond’s balance of proportions, symmetry and polish. A diamond’s overall attraction is directly related to the quality of cut and the skills of the diamond cutter.  When a diamond is cut correctly it will have a greater ability to refract and reflect light, giving it a greater sparkle.

There are three different reflection attributes in grading a diamond’s cut. 
1) Brilliance is the brightness from the light reflected back through the diamond. 
2) Fire is the dispersion of light into a rainbow of colours from the spectrum.
3) Scintillation is the play of light as you move the diamond, this is demonstrated best by it’s sparkle.

The cut of a diamond is probably the most important of the Four C’s. A nicely cut diamond will give a better appearance and maximise clarity and colour. It will also give the impression that the diamond is bigger in comparison with a bad cut diamond of identical carat weight. A round brilliant diamond is the most popular shape, but there are many others called fancy shapes. A round brilliant diamond has 57 facets in total. Other diamond shapes have different proportions, facets and angles, this in turn effects the way a diamond interacts with light, giving each diamond shape its own unique sparkle. 

The cut of a diamond has its own distinctive naming to identify the quality.
Super Ideal: A diamond cut to the highest standards possible, proportioned to return the maximum in light. Very exquisite and rare.
Ideal: A diamond cut to extremely high standards. Nearly all light is reflected. Only about 3% of diamonds based on cut quality.
Very good: A diamond cut to very high standards. Superior cut, nearly as good as Ideal, reflecting nearly as much light, but at a lower cost. About 15% of diamonds based on cut quality.
Good: A diamond cut to high standards. A quality cut optimising size with minimal loss in reflecting light. About 25% of diamonds based on cut quality.
Fair: A diamond cut to descent standards. A adequate cut maximising weight with minimal loss in quality and still reflecting a lot of light. About 35% of diamonds based on cut quality.
Poor: A diamond cut below standards. Inadequate cut and too much loss of reflective light. Eternal Carats does not supply diamonds of this cut quality.

Colour
Here we refer to the natural colour of a diamond and not how it reflects different colours of light. Most diamonds have tiny colour variations in yellow, gray or brown, caused when the diamond was forged deep within our earth. These colour characteristics are minute and most of the time can not be observed by the average naked eye. Nonetheless the less colour a diamond has and the closer it gets to near colourless, the higher its value becomes.

Diamonds with less colour allow more light to pass, and show more fire and brilliance. The only exception to the rule above is coloured diamonds like fancy blue, pink and yellow. These diamonds are not subject to this rule in general. 

Scaling of colours in white diamonds starts with D for colourless to Z for light yellow or brown. These minute colour distinctions are graded under controlled light and viewing situations and compared to existing diamonds with well-trained eyes of an expert.
D: Absolutely colourless. This is the highest colour grade. Extremely rare, expensive and high quality diamond.
E: Colourless: Near zero traces of colour, only detected by expert eye under controlled conditions. A very rare, high quality diamond
F: Colourless: Very slight traces of colour, only detected by expert eye under controlled conditions. A rare, high quality diamond
G-H: Near colourless: Slightly visible colour, but a diamond of excellent quality and value for money.
I-J: Near colourless: Slightly more visible colour, but a diamond of good quality and value for money.
K-Z: More visible colour, Not supplied by Eternal Carats.

Clarity
The clarity of a diamond is determined by how clean or clear it is. When diamonds form in the depths of the earth, they include natural microscopic birthmarks. These birthmarks are called inclusions and can come from different sources: crystallised foreign material, tiny cracks (feathers), microscopic diamonds absorbed by the larger diamonds before surfacing. The amount, location, colour, visibility of the these inclusions effect the clarity of a diamond and ultimately its price. Diamonds with no or very few inclusions are extremely rare and expensive.

The clarity grade of a diamonds is measured face-up and with a 10x magnification. Graders identify the inclusions and plot them out on a diamond map. Every stone has its own unique map of inclusions and this becomes the diamond unique ID.

Here below is the clarity grading from Flawless to Included.
FL / IF: No internal or external flaws (FL) and Flawless with no internal flaws (IF). Extremely rare and expensive.
VVS1 / VVS2: Very very slightly included, levels 1 & 2. Minute and very difficult to see inclusions under 10x magnification for the trained eye. Level 2 slightly more included. 
VS1 / VS2: Very slightly included, levels 1 & 2. Minute and difficult to see inclusions under 10x magnification. Level 2 slightly more included. Inclusions typically not seen with the naked eye.
SI1: Slightly included, level 1. Identifiable but small inclusions under 10x magnification. Inclusions not seen with the naked eye in nearly all cases.
SI2: Slightly included, level 2. Visible and obvious inclusions under 10x magnification. Inclusions may be visible with the naked eye.
I1 / I3: Included level 1 to 3. Visible inclusions with the naked eye. Not supplied by Eternal Carats.

Carat
A carat (ct.) is the standard unit of weight for diamonds, often confused for the size or measurement of a diamond.   A 1.00 carat round brilliant diamond will have an approx 6.5 mm diameter.  Of the Four C’s, Carat is the only one that can be measured scientifically. The measurement of weight of a diamond is very accurate, going down to a hundred thousandths of a carat.

The price of a diamond rises exponential with its size. In other words, a 1.00 carat diamond will in most cases be 4 times the price of a 0.50 carat diamond of the same quality. We at Eternal Carats have a wide range of diamonds starting around 0.30 carat and going up to 5.00 carats. The smaller diamonds (not centre or solitaire diamonds) used in our rings can not be bought individually, but compliment the rings (These range from 0.005 carat up to 0.5 in most cases). At special request we can make a bespoke ring specially for you, please contact us for more information in this case.

Diamond Certificates
When you buy a diamond from Eternal Carats, be it loose or accompanied by a ring setting, a certificate accompanies the diamond. This diamond certificate or grading report is issued by an independent gemological laboratory. Trained gemologists use their expert eyes and high-tech specialised equipment to assess the diamond’s unique characteristics. The weight and dimensions of the diamond are measured and the quality of the diamond’s other characteristics, such as cut, colour and clarity are assessed. We have our diamonds certified or graded by the world’s leading gem labs, incl. GIA, HRD, IGI. At special request we can send you a PDF copy of a diamond’s lab certificate.


 

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